‘Resilience is defined as a ‘dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity’. (Child Trends, May 2019)​ ‘Resilience is not a personal trait that individuals do or do not possess (thus, the term “resiliency” is best avoided because it connotes an individual characteristic), but rather a product of interacting factors—biological, psychological, social, and cultural—that determine how a child responds to traumatic events’. Child Trends, May 2019)


‘Individual trauma results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional and/or spiritual well-being’. (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014)​

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